Select a country

Briefing - Understanding BEPS: From tax avoidance to digital tax challenges - 21-10-2019

Action to fight corporate tax avoidance has been deemed necessary in the OECD forum and has received further impetus through the G20/OECD Base erosion and profit shifting action plan (known as BEPS). The 2015 BEPS action plan has 15 actions, covering element
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Understanding BEPS: From tax avoidance to digital tax challenges - 21-10-2019

Action to fight corporate tax avoidance has been deemed necessary in the OECD forum and has received further impetus through the G20/OECD Base erosion and profit shifting action plan (known as BEPS). The 2015 BEPS action plan has 15 actions, covering elements used in corporate tax-avoidance practices and aggressive tax-planning schemes. The implementation of the BEPS action plan was designed to be flexible, as a consequence of its adoption by consensus. Recommendations made in BEPS reports range from minimum standards to guidelines, as well as putting in place an instrument to modify the provisions of tax treaties related to BEPS practices. In addition, putting BEPS actions into practice has involved a growing number of countries, so as to provide a more inclusive framework able to involve more countries beyond the OECD and G20 members, and build on cooperation between international organisations. The application of BEPS actions and their follow-up involves issues that remain to be implemented or addressed. Here come in particular issues beyond the avoidance techniques that were addressed in the BEPS action plan, starting with addressing tax challenges of the digital economy, building on the BEPS action1 report that defined a calendar for providing an adaptation of international tax rules to the impact of digitalisation. Based on several intermediary reports, the OECD/G20 inclusive framework on BEPS issued a work programme to develop a consensus solution to the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy. Endorsed in June 2019 by the G20, this programme outlines the steps for modernising international tax rules. An annex to this document outlines the different international fora and instruments relevant to BEPS actions and the countries or organisations that participate in them or apply them. This briefing updates an earlier edition (PE 607.288), of June 2017. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - EU listing of tax havens - 21-10-2019

Broadly speaking, 'tax havens' provide taxpayers, both legal and natural persons, with opportunities for tax evasion or avoidance, while their secrecy and opacity also serves to disguise the origins of the proceeds of illegal and criminal activities. One migh
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - EU listing of tax havens - 21-10-2019

Broadly speaking, 'tax havens' provide taxpayers, both legal and natural persons, with opportunities for tax evasion or avoidance, while their secrecy and opacity also serves to disguise the origins of the proceeds of illegal and criminal activities. One might ask why establishing a list of tax havens or high-risk countries is useful. Drawing up such lists began with action to end harmful tax practices arising from the discrepancy between the global reach of financial flows and the geographically limited scope of jurisdictions that match or exist inside national borders. However we refer to tax havens, they all have one thing in common: they allow individuals or organisations to escape from taxation. Distinctive characteristics of tax havens include low or zero taxation, fictitious residences (with no bearing on reality) and tax secrecy. The latter two are key methods for hiding ultimate beneficial owners. In the EU, the process of adopting a common list of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions was initiated as part of efforts to further good tax governance, and its external dimension. On 5 December 2017, the Council adopted a first common list resulting from the assessment of third countries against distinctive criteria. Pursuing the assessment process, the Council has updated the list on the basis of commitments received, while also reviewing countries that had not yet been assessed. This briefing updates an earlier one, from May 2018 – itself an updated and extended version of a briefing from December 2017: ‘Understanding the rationale for compiling “tax haven” lists', PE 614.633 – to take account of the changes in the lists since that date. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Digital challenges for Europe [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 18-10-2019

The rapid development of digital technologies is posing a challenge to the European Union, spurring initiatives to catch up with the US and China in the area, notably in the context of the digital single market. Among the dilemmas are how to reconcile Europe
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Digital challenges for Europe [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 18-10-2019

The rapid development of digital technologies is posing a challenge to the European Union, spurring initiatives to catch up with the US and China in the area, notably in the context of the digital single market. Among the dilemmas are how to reconcile Europe’s sensitivity towards protecting private data with the need to use them in many algorithms, and ensure that automation and artificial intelligence strengthen rather than weaken labour market participation. This note offers links to a series of some recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks and research institutes on digital challenges. Many earlier papers on the issue can be found in a previous item in the series, published in July 2018. Many reports on cybersecurity are available in a publication from October 2018. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Kazakhstan: Transition, but not much change - 18-10-2019

Nursultan Nazarbayev, president of Kazakhstan for nearly 30 years, announced his intention to step down in March 2019. With Nazarbayev's backing, former senate speaker Kassym-Jomart Tokayev was elected to replace him in June. Although Nazarbayev is no longer
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Kazakhstan: Transition, but not much change - 18-10-2019

Nursultan Nazarbayev, president of Kazakhstan for nearly 30 years, announced his intention to step down in March 2019. With Nazarbayev's backing, former senate speaker Kassym-Jomart Tokayev was elected to replace him in June. Although Nazarbayev is no longer president, he retains considerable power, and in the short term at least his successor is not expected to undertake major reforms. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - North Macedonia: A step closer to EU membership - 17-10-2019

On 15 October 2019, the General Affairs Council discussed the issue of enlargement as regards Albania and North Macedonia without reaching unanimity (opposition of one EU Member State) on the decision to open EU accession negotiations with these countries. Th
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - North Macedonia: A step closer to EU membership - 17-10-2019

On 15 October 2019, the General Affairs Council discussed the issue of enlargement as regards Albania and North Macedonia without reaching unanimity (opposition of one EU Member State) on the decision to open EU accession negotiations with these countries. The Council will return to the issue after the European Council meeting on 17 18 October. In line with the 2018 western Balkans strategy, which aimed to inject new momentum into the enlargement process, Ursula von der Leyen, European Commission President-elect, and Josep Borrell, incoming High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and Vice-President-designate of the Commission (HR/VP), have declared the western Balkans to be their priority. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Albania: On the threshold of EU membership - 16-10-2019

The October 2019 European Council meeting will discuss Albania and North Macedonia. The 2018 western Balkans strategy aimed at injecting new momentum for EU enlargement, consequently European Commission President-designate Ursula von der Leyen, and High Repre
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Albania: On the threshold of EU membership - 16-10-2019

The October 2019 European Council meeting will discuss Albania and North Macedonia. The 2018 western Balkans strategy aimed at injecting new momentum for EU enlargement, consequently European Commission President-designate Ursula von der Leyen, and High Representative and Vice-President-designate Josep Borrell, have declared that the EU would prioritise enlargement talks with the western Balkans. In the face of growing frustration and 'enlargement fatigue', a decision to open negotiations would be a strong signal to the region. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Outlook for the European Council (Article 50) meeting on 17 October 2019 - 16-10-2019

The October European Council meeting will represent an important point on the timeline of negotiations on United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU as leaders will be taking stock of the situation before the end of the extension period on 31 October 2019. Thi
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Outlook for the European Council (Article 50) meeting on 17 October 2019 - 16-10-2019

The October European Council meeting will represent an important point on the timeline of negotiations on United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU as leaders will be taking stock of the situation before the end of the extension period on 31 October 2019. This briefing provides an overview of European Council guidelines and decisions taken to provide direction to the negotiations since the UK’s formal notification of withdrawal on 29 March 2017. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Study - Liberté d’expression, une perspective de droit comparé - Belgique - 15-10-2019

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet plus général qui vise à jeter les bases d’une comparaison des régimes juridiques applicables à la liberté d’expression dans différents ordres juridiques. Le document expose, relativement à la Belgique
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Study - Liberté d’expression, une perspective de droit comparé - Belgique - 15-10-2019

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet plus général qui vise à jeter les bases d’une comparaison des régimes juridiques applicables à la liberté d’expression dans différents ordres juridiques. Le document expose, relativement à la Belgique et en rapport avec le thème de l'étude, la législation en vigueur, la jurisprudence la plus significative et la notion de liberté d’expression avec ses limites actuelles et en prospective, et s’achève par quelques conclusions avec possibles solutions face aux défis futurs. Dès la création du Royaume de Belgique, la liberté d’expression était protégée au sein de l’ordre juridique belge. L’évolution de la société a, dans une certaine mesure, modifié tant l’exercice que la perception de la liberté d’expression. Face à ces changements, le législateur et la jurisprudence ont dès lors dû s’adapter, afin d’assurer une continuité dans la protection accordée à la liberté d’expression, mais aussi aux droits d’autrui avec lesquelles cette liberté peut entrer en conflit. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Study - La libertà di espressione, una prospettiva di diritto comparato - Italia - 15-10-2019

Lo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, le delicate questioni che riguardano la libertà di espressione (libertà di manifestazione del pensiero, secondo la formula dell’ar
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Study - La libertà di espressione, una prospettiva di diritto comparato - Italia - 15-10-2019

Lo studio fa parte di un progetto più ampio, il cui scopo è quello di analizzare, nella prospettiva del diritto comparato, le delicate questioni che riguardano la libertà di espressione (libertà di manifestazione del pensiero, secondo la formula dell’art. 21 della Costituzione italiana). L’obiettivo dello studio è quello di esaminare la problematica nel contesto specificamente italiano, pur nella consapevolezza dell’importanza delle fonti internazionali e dell’Unione Europea in materia. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione di carattere storico generale, sono state prese in esame le vicende normative che hanno interessato la libertà di espressione nell’Italia repubblicana. Il punto di partenza è stato, ovviamente, la Costituzione, mentre le altre fonti sono state ordinate in ragione del mezzo di comunicazione che, di volta in volta, disciplinano. Ampia attenzione è stata dedicata alla giurisprudenza. Nell’impossibilità di dare conto di tutto l’immenso materiale disponibile, si sono selezionati alcuni casi particolarmente significativi, tratti dalla giurisprudenza della Corte costituzionale, della Corte di cassazione, del Consiglio di Stato e di alcune giurisdizioni di merito. Sono stati identificati, infine, i principali nodi problematici che occorre tuttora sciogliere, a fronte sia del progresso tecnologico che dell’evoluzione delle società pluraliste. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Study - La libertad de expresión, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - España - 15-10-2019

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación de la libertad de expresión por parte de los diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Con especial atención, a los pr
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Study - La libertad de expresión, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - España - 15-10-2019

Este estudio forma parte de un proyecto destinado a sentar las bases de una comparación integrada y correlacionada de la regulación de la libertad de expresión por parte de los diferentes ordenamientos jurídicos positivos. Con especial atención, a los propios de los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea. El documento describe, en lo relativo a España, el análisis de la legislación vigente, de la jurisprudencia constitucional más significativa, así como el estudio del concepto y la naturaleza de la libertad de expresión, prestando particular atención a sus distintos límites. Para concluir, se apuntan algunas posibles soluciones de legge ferenda frente a los evidentes y múltiples desafíos de hoy en la materia. La libertad de expresión está regulada en la Constitución española de 1978 junto con el derecho a la información; dos derechos, por tanto, interrelacionados, pero autónomos e independientes. Ambos se recogen así en el artículo 20 CE, que goza en nuestro régimen constitucional de las máximas garantías, junto con los derechos de autor y la libertad de cátedra. Se constitucionaliza asimismo la prohibición de la censura previa, al tiempo que sólo se permite el secuestro de publicaciones por resolución judicial. El artículo 20 contempla también de forma explícita sus límites, con especial significación a los derechos al honor, a la intimidad personal y familiar y a la propia imagen del artículo 18.1 CE, así como a la protección de la juventud y la infancia. Por último, se mandata la ordenación por ley de los medios de comunicación social de naturaleza pública. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

In-Depth Analysis - EU trade policy: Frequently asked questions - 15-10-2019

This paper seeks to serve as a key resource for policy-makers who need to understand complex issues related to international trade quickly. It also outlines the key academic debates and issues, and provides references to further resources that could offer use
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

In-Depth Analysis - EU trade policy: Frequently asked questions - 15-10-2019

This paper seeks to serve as a key resource for policy-makers who need to understand complex issues related to international trade quickly. It also outlines the key academic debates and issues, and provides references to further resources that could offer useful support to the work of policy-makers in the European Parliament. It seeks to provide immediate answers to the most commonly asked questions related to EU trade policy: from the evolution and scope of EU common commercial policy to the role of different EU institutions and the economics of trade. It includes explanations of key trade concepts. In addition, the paper covers the procedures for the conclusion of international trade agreements, types of trade relationship, and the specific characteristics of EU legal instruments in the area of trade. Lastly, it addresses the issues of trade and sustainable development, which have grown into a key area of concern for Parliament. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Outlook for the meetings of EU leaders, 17-18 October 2019 - 15-10-2019

The EU leaders will meet on 17-18 October for a summit expected to be dominated by Brexit. They will also discuss the recently adopted Strategic Agenda 2019-24, the priorities of the incoming Commission, the current state of play on the MFF negotiations, the
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Outlook for the meetings of EU leaders, 17-18 October 2019 - 15-10-2019

The EU leaders will meet on 17-18 October for a summit expected to be dominated by Brexit. They will also discuss the recently adopted Strategic Agenda 2019-24, the priorities of the incoming Commission, the current state of play on the MFF negotiations, the external dimension of climate policy, and could consider the possibility of opening accession negotiations with Albania and North Macedonia. As part of their foreign policy debate, EU leaders could consider the evolution of the situations in Ukraine and Syria, where a Turkish military operation has commenced in the northern part of the country. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

In-Depth Analysis - Mainstreaming of climate action in the EU budget: Impact of a political objective - 11-10-2019

Facilitating the transition to a climate-friendly and resilient economy requires huge investments. The EU has committed to spending 20 % of its 2014-2020 financial resources on climate-related measures. Against the backdrop of the Paris Agreement and of the S
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

In-Depth Analysis - Mainstreaming of climate action in the EU budget: Impact of a political objective - 11-10-2019

Facilitating the transition to a climate-friendly and resilient economy requires huge investments. The EU has committed to spending 20 % of its 2014-2020 financial resources on climate-related measures. Against the backdrop of the Paris Agreement and of the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations, such a high-level political objective acquires new salience in the negotiations for the post-2020 EU budget. The European Commission has proposed to raise this objective to 25 % of the EU budget in the next programming period, while the European Parliament has called for an even more ambitious approach. Tracking and reporting climate-related expenditure pose several challenges. This analysis describes how climate action has been mainstreamed in the EU budget so far, as well as possible developments for the 2021 2027 period. The EU appears on track to almost reach its 20 % objective by 2020. Assessments of the tracking methodology and of its impact have identified both achievements and shortcomings. The creation of a broad political objective is deemed to act as a driver of increased focus on climate considerations across different policies. Recommendations for improvements include the development of a stronger performance framework. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

In-Depth Analysis - The 2019 proposed amendments to the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism - 11-10-2019

This document presents the proposed amendments to the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism, following the decisions taken by the Eurogroup and the June 2019 Euro Summit. It complements an EGOV briefing on the ESM features, instruments and acco
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

In-Depth Analysis - The 2019 proposed amendments to the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism - 11-10-2019

This document presents the proposed amendments to the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism, following the decisions taken by the Eurogroup and the June 2019 Euro Summit. It complements an EGOV briefing on the ESM features, instruments and accountability. The note outlines the relevant changes and provides a comparison between the current ESM Treaty and the proposed amended one. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - What next for Europe? A strategic foresight perspective - 10-10-2019

The ESPAS report examines the challenges posed for the European Union by megatrends such as digitisation, demographic change and the climate crisis. It emphasises the need for judicious responses, arguing that inaction heightens the risk of bad outcomes. It a
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - What next for Europe? A strategic foresight perspective - 10-10-2019

The ESPAS report examines the challenges posed for the European Union by megatrends such as digitisation, demographic change and the climate crisis. It emphasises the need for judicious responses, arguing that inaction heightens the risk of bad outcomes. It also notes that the more equal our societies are, the better prepared we are to face the future. Topics examined The report is the fruit of an inter-institutional strategic foresight exercise. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Arthouse cinemas in the EU: Showcasing European talent - 10-10-2019

The fourth European Arthouse Cinema Day will take place on 13 October 2019 in some 700 cinemas all over the world. The idea is to showcase both the cultural diversity of European productions and the total commitment of the Europa Cinemas network to supportin
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Arthouse cinemas in the EU: Showcasing European talent - 10-10-2019

The fourth European Arthouse Cinema Day will take place on 13 October 2019 in some 700 cinemas all over the world. The idea is to showcase both the cultural diversity of European productions and the total commitment of the Europa Cinemas network to supporting demanding and original programming. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - CAP Amending Regulation (CMO): Amending regulations on the CMO for agricultural products, quality schemes and measures for remote regions - 10-10-2019

On 1 July 2018, as part of the work on the EU's 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework, the European Commission proposed a package of three regulations with the aim of reshaping and modernising the common agricultural policy (CAP). One of these proposals,
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - CAP Amending Regulation (CMO): Amending regulations on the CMO for agricultural products, quality schemes and measures for remote regions - 10-10-2019

On 1 July 2018, as part of the work on the EU's 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework, the European Commission proposed a package of three regulations with the aim of reshaping and modernising the common agricultural policy (CAP). One of these proposals, the Amending Regulation, introduces changes to rules governing the common market organisation (CMO) in agricultural products (including the rules on wine), the EU quality schemes (geographical indications) and the support measures for remote regions. The aim is to equip agricultural markets and support measures to face new challenges, update provisions, simplify procedures and ensure consistency with other regulations on the future CAP. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Oleg Sentsov: The 2018 Sakharov Prize laureate - 09-10-2019

Thirty years since it was first awarded, the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought retains all its symbolic meaning, as human rights are continually under threat in many parts of the world. By awarding the 2018 Prize to the Ukrainian fil
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Oleg Sentsov: The 2018 Sakharov Prize laureate - 09-10-2019

Thirty years since it was first awarded, the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought retains all its symbolic meaning, as human rights are continually under threat in many parts of the world. By awarding the 2018 Prize to the Ukrainian filmmaker Oleg Sentsov, Parliament aimed to increase the pressure on the Russian government to release him. The award also drew attention to all Ukrainian political prisoners in Russia and the annexed Crimean peninsula. On 7 September 2019, Sentsov was released as part of a major prisoner swap between Russia and Ukraine. He is due to receive the award in person in Strasbourg on 23 October 2019. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Employment and Social Affairs: Achievements and challenges ahead - 08-10-2019

This report summarises presentations and discussions from a workshop held on 24 September 2019 as part of the EMPL Committee meeting. The workshop brought together views from international organisations and experts on a broad range of topics: ILO and OECD st
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Employment and Social Affairs: Achievements and challenges ahead - 08-10-2019

This report summarises presentations and discussions from a workshop held on 24 September 2019 as part of the EMPL Committee meeting. The workshop brought together views from international organisations and experts on a broad range of topics: ILO and OECD strategies for the future of work, EU policies for skills development and for combating child poverty, potential gaps in European labour law and in European law on health and safety at workplaces of the future. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - What if technologies replaced humans in elderly care? - 08-10-2019

Could technologies respond to the challenges associated with the ageing European population? While future assistive technologies for elderly care are promising, current technologies are not used to their full potential. Effective change should target all soci
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - What if technologies replaced humans in elderly care? - 08-10-2019

Could technologies respond to the challenges associated with the ageing European population? While future assistive technologies for elderly care are promising, current technologies are not used to their full potential. Effective change should target all social groups, not only the elderly. ‘One-size-fits-all’ approaches for technology and policy are not well suited to elderly care because everyone has different abilities and individual circumstances. The establishment of a defined profession of experts in the application of assistive technologies for elderly care could play an important role in supporting the development of the sector. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Civil and military drones: Navigating a disruptive and dynamic technological ecosystem - 08-10-2019

Often labelled as one of today's main disruptive technologies, drones have indeed earned this label by prompting a fundamental rethinking of business models, existing laws, safety and security standards, the future of transport, and modern warfare. The Europe
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Civil and military drones: Navigating a disruptive and dynamic technological ecosystem - 08-10-2019

Often labelled as one of today's main disruptive technologies, drones have indeed earned this label by prompting a fundamental rethinking of business models, existing laws, safety and security standards, the future of transport, and modern warfare. The European Union (EU) recognises the opportunities that drones offer and sees them as opening a new chapter in the history of aerospace. The EU aviation strategy provides guidance for exploring new and emerging technologies, and encourages the integration of drones into business and society so as to maintain a competitive EU aviation industry. Ranging from insect-sized to several tonnes in weight, drones are extremely versatile and can perform a very large variety of functions, from filming to farming, and from medical aid to search and rescue operations. Among the advantages of civil and military drones are their relative low cost, reach, greater work productivity and capacity to reduce risk to human life. These features have led to their mass commercialisation and integration into military planning. Regulatory and oversight challenges remain, however, particularly regarding dual-use drones – civil drones that can be easily turned into armed drones or weaponised for criminal purposes. At EU level, the European Commission has been empowered to regulate civil drones and the European Aviation Safety Agency to assist with ensuring a harmonised regulatory framework for safe drone operations. The latest EU legislation has achieved the highest ever safety standards for drones. Another challenge remaining for regulators, officials and manufacturers alike is the need to build the trust of citizens and consumers. Given that drones have been in the public eye more often for their misuse than their accomplishments, transparency and effective communication are imperative to prepare citizens for the upcoming drone age. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Using trade policy to tackle climate change - 08-10-2019

The recent forest fires in the Amazon highlight the need for greater measures worldwide to attenuate tensions between resource needs, for example mining or grazing, that cause deforestation. European leaders have called for urgent action, including through tr
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Using trade policy to tackle climate change - 08-10-2019

The recent forest fires in the Amazon highlight the need for greater measures worldwide to attenuate tensions between resource needs, for example mining or grazing, that cause deforestation. European leaders have called for urgent action, including through trade policy. Policy-makers argue, for instance, for leveraging the negotiated European Union (EU)-Mercosur Trade Agreement to achieve compliance with the Paris Agreement. Since the Paris Agreement is binding only in part and aspirational concerning national emissions targets, there are calls to resort to trade policy instead. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Report on employment and social policies in the euro area - 07-10-2019

At the beginning of the European Semester cycle, in November, the Council adopts euro-area recommendations and conclusions on the annual growth survey and the alert mechanism report. In advance of this the Employment and Social Affairs Committee, as of last y
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Report on employment and social policies in the euro area - 07-10-2019

At the beginning of the European Semester cycle, in November, the Council adopts euro-area recommendations and conclusions on the annual growth survey and the alert mechanism report. In advance of this the Employment and Social Affairs Committee, as of last year, prepares a report on employment and social policies in the euro area. This year's report puts great emphasis on the urgent need to address persistent inequalities across regions, generations and genders. It calls for social priorities to be placed on a par with economic ones and for the implementation rate of the country specific recommendations to be stepped up in the euro area and beyond. Parliament is due to debate the report during the October I plenary part-session. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Amending Budget No 4 to the 2019 EU budget: Reduction of commitment and payment appropriations - 07-10-2019

Draft Amending Budget No 4/2019 (DAB 4/2019) aims to reduce commitment and payment appropriations in line with updated expenditure needs and the update of revenue (own resources) to take account of the latest economic forecasts and other developments. The Com
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Amending Budget No 4 to the 2019 EU budget: Reduction of commitment and payment appropriations - 07-10-2019

Draft Amending Budget No 4/2019 (DAB 4/2019) aims to reduce commitment and payment appropriations in line with updated expenditure needs and the update of revenue (own resources) to take account of the latest economic forecasts and other developments. The Committee on Budgets (BUDG) adopted a number of changes to the Council's position. The report is due to be voted during the October I plenary part-session. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Post-2020 EU budget - 07-10-2019

During the October I part-session, the Council and the Commission are to make statements on the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework (MFF) and own resources. Parliament is expected to vote on a motion for a resolution confirming and updating its positio
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Post-2020 EU budget - 07-10-2019

During the October I part-session, the Council and the Commission are to make statements on the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework (MFF) and own resources. Parliament is expected to vote on a motion for a resolution confirming and updating its position on the negotiations that will determine how the EU will finance and invest its budget in the future. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Ukraine: Navigating multiple challenges - 07-10-2019

Five years after the 'revolution of dignity', in which Ukrainians demanded a functioning democracy and an end to kleptocracy, the country elected a new President in April 2019 and a new Parliament in July. The new leaders in Kyiv are facing a wide range of pe
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Ukraine: Navigating multiple challenges - 07-10-2019

Five years after the 'revolution of dignity', in which Ukrainians demanded a functioning democracy and an end to kleptocracy, the country elected a new President in April 2019 and a new Parliament in July. The new leaders in Kyiv are facing a wide range of persistent challenges. Russia's ongoing hybrid war against the country, including the illegal occupation of Crimea and the war in eastern Ukraine, as well as the continued reform process dominate the agenda. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the Commission is expected to make a statement on the situation in Ukraine during the October I plenary session. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Teachers: Contributing to the EU's future - 04-10-2019

Among all the factors that contribute to the school environment, it is considered that teachers have the greatest impact on pupils’ learning outcomes. Their work is celebrated on World Teachers’ Day, every 5 October since 1994. This is an occasion to hono
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Teachers: Contributing to the EU's future - 04-10-2019

Among all the factors that contribute to the school environment, it is considered that teachers have the greatest impact on pupils’ learning outcomes. Their work is celebrated on World Teachers’ Day, every 5 October since 1994. This is an occasion to honour the teaching profession worldwide, take stock of achievements, and address some outstanding issues, notably how to attract and retain the brightest minds and young talents in the profession. This infographic presents data on teachers in the EU, looking for instance at the age profile of teachers in different EU Member States, at pupil-teacher ratios, at the split of men and women in teaching jobs, at requirements for continuing professional development and at teachers' salaries in the different Member States. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - EU external aviation policy - 04-10-2019

The 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation ('Chicago Convention') is the chief regulatory framework for international civil aviation, but also the most important primary source of public international aviation law and the umbrella under which bilater
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - EU external aviation policy - 04-10-2019

The 1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation ('Chicago Convention') is the chief regulatory framework for international civil aviation, but also the most important primary source of public international aviation law and the umbrella under which bilateral air service agreements have been developed. While early bilateral air service agreements between states were quite restrictive, to protect their respective flag carriers, the United States proposed a more flexible model of bilateral air services agreements in the early 1990s, the 'Open Skies' agreements. Challenges to these agreements on the grounds that some of their provisions did not conform to Community law, led to the 2002 European Court of Justice 'Open Skies' judgments. These judgments triggered the development of an EU external aviation policy, leading to the conclusion of horizontal agreements and the negotiation and conclusion of comprehensive EU agreements with some neighbouring countries and key trading partners. To tackle the challenges currently facing international air transport and, in particular, increased competition from third countries, in December 2015, the Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe that places great emphasis on the EU's external dimension, which the EU has started delivering, for instance with the adoption of a new EU tool to ensure fair competition between Union and third-country air carriers and the ongoing negotiations for new air transport agreements. This is an updated edition of a Briefing published in November 2016: PE 582.021. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - International aviation agreements - 04-10-2019

To tackle international air transport challenges in the European Union, particularly increased competition from third countries, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe in December 2015, placing strong emphasis on international avia
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - International aviation agreements - 04-10-2019

To tackle international air transport challenges in the European Union, particularly increased competition from third countries, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe in December 2015, placing strong emphasis on international aviation agreements. After obtaining negotiating mandates from Council, a number of EU-level comprehensive agreements are coming to fruition, with some now awaiting signature or ratification. This is an updated and expanded edition of an ‘at a glance’ note from November 2016, PE 593.524. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - EU support for coal regions - 03-10-2019

The EU has committed to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40 % before 2030, and by at least 80 % by 2050. This will require a transition from relying on fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and in particular a reduction in power generation from coal. Whil
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - EU support for coal regions - 03-10-2019

The EU has committed to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 40 % before 2030, and by at least 80 % by 2050. This will require a transition from relying on fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and in particular a reduction in power generation from coal. While EU production and consumption of coal has declined steadily, coal still provides about a quarter of EU power generation. Coal is mined in 12 Member States, and coal-fired power plants operate in 21 Member States. The European coal sector employs 238 000 people in directly linked activities, such as coal mines and power plants. An estimated 160 000 jobs could disappear by 2030. Further job losses are expected in indirect activities along the value chain, e.g. power generation, equipment supply, services, research and development. Impacts of phasing out coal are also likely to be felt in the iron and steel sectors, mining equipment manufacturing and coal terminals. Transition to a low-carbon economy will therefore require structural changes in coal-producing regions. Proposed solutions include helping workers to retrain and supporting their search for new employment, promoting local economies' diversification, modernising energy and power generation systems, developing the renewable energy sector, and rehabilitating mining land, for instance by converting former mines for renewable energy use or creating industrial heritage sites. The EU provides a variety of funding that can be used to alleviate the socio-economic consequences for coal regions. Energy and climate adaptation programmes, along with cohesion policy and research funding opportunities, offer financial support, while additional technical assistance is also available. The European Commission's Platform for Coal Regions in Transition assists regions to prepare and implement transition activities. As the EU is currently negotiating its post-2020 budgetary framework, the European Parliament and the European Committee of the Regions call for specific measures and tailored funding sources to offer support to facilitate transition in coal regions. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Adult learners in a digital world - 03-10-2019

What impact does the digital world have on adult learners? Do they need to develop specific skills? Is the internet the new space where adults learn or find learning opportunities? This infographic looks at how adults in the EU currently use the internet, an
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Adult learners in a digital world - 03-10-2019

What impact does the digital world have on adult learners? Do they need to develop specific skills? Is the internet the new space where adults learn or find learning opportunities? This infographic looks at how adults in the EU currently use the internet, and their level of skills, to identify some of their learning needs. It then focuses on the characteristics of those who seek educational opportunities online to detect gaps in access to learning. Finally, it looks at how many actually use the internet for learning purposes and workplace ICT skills development training to pinpoint learning opportunities. While policy-makers see the potential of the digital environment to broaden access to education, lack of skills and infrastructure may be barriers in their own right. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Implementing the Urban Agenda for the EU - 02-10-2019

Our towns and cities are home to nearly three quarters of the EU's population, and most EU policies concern them, be it directly or indirectly. While the revised 2014-2020 cohesion policy framework introduced a number of new instruments intended to enhance th
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Implementing the Urban Agenda for the EU - 02-10-2019

Our towns and cities are home to nearly three quarters of the EU's population, and most EU policies concern them, be it directly or indirectly. While the revised 2014-2020 cohesion policy framework introduced a number of new instruments intended to enhance the urban dimension of cohesion funding, a shared vision of urban development has gradually taken shape at inter-governmental level, accompanied by increasing calls to give city authorities and stakeholders a greater say in policy-making. To help guide these discussions, the European Commission launched a public consultation following its July 2014 communication on the urban dimension of EU policies. Its findings indicated broad support among city stakeholders for an Urban Agenda for the EU. The European Parliament also prepared an own-initiative report on the issue, as part of a process that would ultimately lead to the signing of the Pact of Amsterdam on 30 May 2016, a clear political commitment to deliver an Urban Agenda. With the pact providing for the creation of urban partnerships focusing on key urban themes, all partnerships are now in operation. A total of 12 partnerships have now drawn up action plans, allowing the partners involved to contribute to the design of future, or the revision of current, EU legislation. As many of these plans are currently at the implementation stage, this is leading to a series of concrete deliverables, helping to ensure that the Urban Agenda for the EU is making a real difference on the ground. Developments such as better coordination at the Commission on urban issues have further consolidated the Urban Agenda, yet challenges remain. In this context, the Commission's proposals for the cohesion framework post-2020, which include creating a European urban initiative to support the Urban Agenda, the imminent Commission assessment of Urban Agenda implementation and the planned renewal of the Leipzig Charter in 2020, all have the potential to strengthen the Urban Agenda. Successfully implementing the Urban Agenda, however, will ultimately depend on the partnerships' ability to deliver actions and on the extent to which they are taken up by the Commission, a process requiring full commitment from all partners involved. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Metropolitan regions in EU cohesion policy - 02-10-2019

Metropolitan regions currently include three fifths of the EU population – a proportion that is expected to increase in the future. These regions constitute important poles of innovation, research and economic growth, while also offering a wide variety of e
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Metropolitan regions in EU cohesion policy - 02-10-2019

Metropolitan regions currently include three fifths of the EU population – a proportion that is expected to increase in the future. These regions constitute important poles of innovation, research and economic growth, while also offering a wide variety of educational, cultural and professional opportunities to their inhabitants. Nevertheless, metropolitan regions face a number of important challenges. As they are composed of urban, sub-urban and even rural areas, they require a multidimensional policy approach to help them tackle their complex issues. One of the major issues that metropolitan regions usually face is the lack of an efficient, inter-connected transport system. Environmental pollution, a major problem in many such regions, is inextricably linked to transport (exacerbated by the high number of commuters), high energy consumption and waste creation. Metropolitan regions usually constitute poles of population growth and have to cater for the integration of their newly arrived citizens. In certain cases, the increasing demand for accommodation leads to a lack of affordable housing and an escalation of rental and property prices; this problem has worsened in many urban areas of the European Union in recent years. In addition, although metropolitan regions may be hubs of economic growth, they also house big numbers of poor and homeless people. Yet again, a number of de-industrialised EU metropolitan regions are suffering severe economic losses. The EU is addressing the needs of metropolitan regions through a number of funds and tools, most notably the European structural and investment funds. Other EU instruments, such as the Urban Agenda for the EU also provide opportunities for metropolitan regions. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - India: Economic indicators and trade with EU - 30-09-2019

At the beginning of the century, the EU and India were growing exactly at the same path: how about today? Who is the main trade partner of India: China or the EU? And would you ever think that the EU exports to India pearls and precious stones more than elect
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - India: Economic indicators and trade with EU - 30-09-2019

At the beginning of the century, the EU and India were growing exactly at the same path: how about today? Who is the main trade partner of India: China or the EU? And would you ever think that the EU exports to India pearls and precious stones more than electronic equipment? And how much is it easy to do business in New Delhi? Find the answers to these and many more questions in our EPRS publication on ‘India: Economic indicators and trade with EU’, part of a series of infographics produced in collaboration with the European University Institute's GlobalStat on the world's main economies. This is an updated edition of an ‘At a Glance’ note published in July 2016. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Health and safety in the workplace of the future - 16-09-2019

The note identifies future risks to the physical and mental health and safety of workers that are attributable to technology-driven changes in the workplace and looks at possible legislative responses and further action. Source : © European Union, 2019
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Health and safety in the workplace of the future - 16-09-2019

The note identifies future risks to the physical and mental health and safety of workers that are attributable to technology-driven changes in the workplace and looks at possible legislative responses and further action. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP