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At a Glance - Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, January I 2020 - 17-01-2020

January highlights included statements on ongoing hearings on the rule of law under Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union (EU) regarding Hungary and Poland; bushfires in Australia and climate change consequences; cross-border organised crime and its im
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, January I 2020 - 17-01-2020

January highlights included statements on ongoing hearings on the rule of law under Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union (EU) regarding Hungary and Poland; bushfires in Australia and climate change consequences; cross-border organised crime and its impact on free movement; a common charger for mobile radio equipment; the gender pay gap; and the 'Housing First' approach to address homelessness. Parliament also debated statements on the situation in Iran and Iraq, in Libya, and in Venezuela following the illegal election of the new National Assembly Presidency and Bureau. Members voted on annual reports on implementation of the common foreign and security, and foreign and defence policies. Members debated citizens' rights provisions in the UK Withdrawal Agreement. They also voted on a resolution on the European Green Deal, following their debate in December's special session – on the day on which the Commission had itself adopted and presented its plans. In addition, His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan addressed a formal sitting of Parliament. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Study - The role of national fiscal bodies - State of play (January 2020) - 16-01-2020

This briefing provides an overview of the advisory role played by independent national fiscal bodies in the preparations of the budgets of the EU Member States. The briefing is updated regularly. The objective of the analysis is twofold: 1) to give an overvi
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Study - The role of national fiscal bodies - State of play (January 2020) - 16-01-2020

This briefing provides an overview of the advisory role played by independent national fiscal bodies in the preparations of the budgets of the EU Member States. The briefing is updated regularly. The objective of the analysis is twofold: 1) to give an overview of the set-up and functioning of these independent fiscal bodies based on the most recent assessments by the European Commission. 2) to give an overview of the extent to which the latest Stability or Convergence Programmes and the Draft Budgetary Plans contain information about the involvement of independent national fiscal bodies in the preparation of these programmes/plans. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - Using technology to 'co-create' EU policies - 17-01-2020

What will European Union (EU) decision-making look like in the next decade and beyond? Is technological progress promoting more transparent, inclusive and participatory decision-making at EU level? Technology has dramatically changed both the number and quali
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Briefing - Using technology to 'co-create' EU policies - 17-01-2020

What will European Union (EU) decision-making look like in the next decade and beyond? Is technological progress promoting more transparent, inclusive and participatory decision-making at EU level? Technology has dramatically changed both the number and quality of connections between citizens and public administrations. With technological progress, citizens have gained improved access to public authorities through new digital communication channels. Innovative, tech-based, approaches to policy-making have become the subject of a growing debate between academics and politicians. Theoretical approaches such as ‘CrowdLaw’, ‘Policy-Making 3.0’, ‘liquid’, ‘do-it-yourself’ or ‘technical’ democracy and ‘democratic innovations’ share the positive outlook towards technology; and technology is seen as the medium through which policies can be ‘co-created’ by decision-makers and stakeholders. Co-creation is mutually beneficial. Decision-makers gain legitimacy by incorporating the skills, knowledge and expertise of citizens, who in turn have the opportunity to shape new policies according to their needs and expectations. EU institutions are at the forefront of experimentation with technologically innovative approaches to make decision-making more transparent and accessible to stakeholders. Efforts in modernising EU participatory channels through technology have evolved over time: from redressing criticism on democratic deficits, through fostering digital interactions with stakeholders, up to current attempts at designing policy-making in a friendly and participative manner. While technological innovation holds the promise of making EU policy-making even more participatory, it is not without challenges. To begin with, technology is resource consuming. There are legal challenges associated with both over- and under-regulation of the use of technology in policy-making. Furthermore, technological innovation raises ethical concerns. It may increase inequality, for instance, or infringe personal privacy. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - Escalating US-Iran conflict: The EU's priorities - 16-01-2020

On 3 January 2020, a United States (US) strike outside Baghdad killed Iranian General Qasem Soleimani, the leader of the al-Qods force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IGRC), and arguably the second most important man in Iran after Supreme Leader
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At a Glance - Escalating US-Iran conflict: The EU's priorities - 16-01-2020

On 3 January 2020, a United States (US) strike outside Baghdad killed Iranian General Qasem Soleimani, the leader of the al-Qods force within the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IGRC), and arguably the second most important man in Iran after Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. The assassination was a reaction to an escalation in the growing conflict between the USA and Iran. Iran retaliated on 8 January 2020, by attacking two US bases in Iraq with missiles; luckily – or intentionally – without casualties. Although both the USA and Iran have refrained from any further action, few expect this to mark the end of tensions between the USA and Iran in the region. The EU reaction to the assassination has been to try to de-escalate the situation to prevent all-out war, to focus on stabilising Iraq, and to limit damage to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA). Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - Bolivia: A test for democracy - 16-01-2020

Bolivia's Evo Morales was probably the most successful among the presidents belonging to the left-wing movements that swept across the Latin American region in the early 2000s. However, his insistence on clinging to power in defiance of the Constitution and t
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At a Glance - Bolivia: A test for democracy - 16-01-2020

Bolivia's Evo Morales was probably the most successful among the presidents belonging to the left-wing movements that swept across the Latin American region in the early 2000s. However, his insistence on clinging to power in defiance of the Constitution and the will of the majority of Bolivians, including many of his former supporters, ultimately led to his demise and sparked political conflict. Nevertheless, the agreement reached between all parties to call new elections gives hope for the future and could be an example for other countries in the region to emulate. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - Comprendre la fiscalité environnementale - 16-01-2020

Parmi les mesures visant à promouvoir un changement vers des choix plus respectueux de l’environnement figure la fiscalité environnementale, en complément des autres instruments disponibles pour effectuer l’adaptation nécessaire pour faire face aux d
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Briefing - Comprendre la fiscalité environnementale - 16-01-2020

Parmi les mesures visant à promouvoir un changement vers des choix plus respectueux de l’environnement figure la fiscalité environnementale, en complément des autres instruments disponibles pour effectuer l’adaptation nécessaire pour faire face aux défis environnementaux et climatiques. La fiscalité environnementale, dans son principe, a pour but d’inclure dans les prix le coût des atteintes à l'environnement (dites externalités négatives) afin de réorienter vers des choix de production et de consommation plus respectueux de l’environnement. La fiscalité environnementale couvre potentiellement tous les domaines de la protection et de la préservation de l’environnement. La lutte contre le changement climatique, les pollutions (de l'air et de l'eau notamment) et les pressions subies par l’environnement (usage des ressources, biodiversité en particulier) ainsi que les facteurs qui y contribuent (par exemple les émissions de gaz et l'utilisation de substances pouvant être dommageables) peuvent être l’objet des mesures fiscales. Ce sont des mesures générales ou sectorielles, dont l’application varie selon les États et leurs collectivités. Dans l’Union européenne, la politique environnementale et la politique fiscale déterminent les contours de l’action respective des États membres et de l’Union. Les mesures fiscales environnementales existantes ont une part modeste parmi les revenus fiscaux des États. Si les objectifs environnementaux sont généralement reconnus, l’application de mesures relevant de la fiscalité environnementale nécessite la prise en compte de divers aspects, notamment ceux relatifs à la compétitivité et l’équité afin d’assurer une lisibilité de la fiscalité environnementale apte à assurer son acceptabilité pour en faire un instrument effectif de la transition nécessaire. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Study - Contribution to growth: European Public Procurement - 15-01-2019

This study evaluates the objectives of legislative actions in the area of public procurement during the 7th and 8th legislature and assesses the contribution of current initiatives to the achievement of EU objectives. This document provides for a critical ana
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Study - Contribution to growth: European Public Procurement - 15-01-2019

This study evaluates the objectives of legislative actions in the area of public procurement during the 7th and 8th legislature and assesses the contribution of current initiatives to the achievement of EU objectives. This document provides for a critical analysis of the legal framework of the public procurement regime and identifies the future potential of European public procurement.. This document was prepared by Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy, at the request of the Committee for the Internal Market and Consumer Protection. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - The European Parliament after Brexit - 14-01-2020

Once the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU becomes legally effective, 73 EP seats will become vacant. Twenty-seven of these seats will be re-distributed among 14 Member States. The remaining 46 seats would be available for potential EU enlargement
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At a Glance - The European Parliament after Brexit - 14-01-2020

Once the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU becomes legally effective, 73 EP seats will become vacant. Twenty-seven of these seats will be re-distributed among 14 Member States. The remaining 46 seats would be available for potential EU enlargements and/or for the possible future creation of a transnational constituency. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - January 2020 - 13-01-2020

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP
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At a Glance - Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - January 2020 - 13-01-2020

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - Cross-border threats to health: EU action on preparedness and response - 10-01-2020

Serious threats to health – such as those due to infectious disease outbreaks or environmental factors – do not respect borders. They do, however, require cross-border cooperation and a coordinated response. Decision No 1082/2013/EU is the framework for E
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Briefing - Cross-border threats to health: EU action on preparedness and response - 10-01-2020

Serious threats to health – such as those due to infectious disease outbreaks or environmental factors – do not respect borders. They do, however, require cross-border cooperation and a coordinated response. Decision No 1082/2013/EU is the framework for European Union action on health emergencies. It provides for information exchange, risk assessment and joint procurement, among other mechanisms. The EU-level response is coordinated by the Health Security Committee. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control meanwhile plays a crucial role in identifying, assessing and communicating threats to health from communicable diseases. Parliament has adopted own-initiative and legislative resolutions focusing both on the general and more specific aspects of cross-border threats to health. At global level, all EU Member States are party to the legally binding International Health Regulations that require them to develop, strengthen and maintain core public health capacities for surveillance and response. Implementation is coordinated by the World Health Organization. Going forward, Member States have expressed interest in exploiting the potential of joint procurement beyond pandemic influenza vaccines. Moreover, a joint action on strengthened International Health Regulations and preparedness in the EU has recently been launched, focusing, in particular, on countering biological and chemical terror attacks in Europe across the health, security and civil protection sectors. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - EU cohesiveness and cohesion [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 10-01-2020

The European Union is envisaged as an area of growing stability, security and prosperity, with integration allowing it to boost citizens’ living standards and to enhance its influence globally. Generous cohesion and regional development funds are meant to l
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Briefing - EU cohesiveness and cohesion [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 10-01-2020

The European Union is envisaged as an area of growing stability, security and prosperity, with integration allowing it to boost citizens’ living standards and to enhance its influence globally. Generous cohesion and regional development funds are meant to limit wealth disparities among the various EU regions and countries. However, frequent difficulties in forging common foreign and economic policies, due to national differences, can diminish the EU’s domestic effectiveness and international leverage, while inequalities in income have been widening, especially in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008. This note brings together commentaries, analyses and studies by international think tanks and research institutes on EU cohesiveness and cohesion published over the past year. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - Understanding development effectiveness: Concepts, players and tools - 09-01-2020

In the context of the limited availability of development aid, there is an increased demand for effective results. This means that both developing and richer countries must commit to spending and using aid more effectively. Public funding is not enough to cov
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Briefing - Understanding development effectiveness: Concepts, players and tools - 09-01-2020

In the context of the limited availability of development aid, there is an increased demand for effective results. This means that both developing and richer countries must commit to spending and using aid more effectively. Public funding is not enough to cover all needs, but it can leverage initiatives from civil society and the private sector. The increase in stakeholders and intervention methods, both in terms of numbers and variety, combined with the necessity to address needs in the field more precisely, has led to a global rethinking of how to assess development. High-level forums and stakeholder networks have helped to fine-tune the main principles of development effectiveness and to shift from a donor-recipient relationship to a more cooperative framework. Methods and tools have improved and led to better planning, implementation and appraisal of development projects. The EU has been closely involved in designing and implementing the effectiveness principles. The European Parliament often refers to them, insisting that they must not be sacrificed for the sake of short-term interests. This briefing is an update of a previous edition from April 2017. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - Preparing the post-2020 biodiversity framework - 09-01-2020

In October 2020, the parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the main international agreement on biodiversity protection, will meet in Kunming (China) to agree on a post-2020 global biodiversity framework, with conservation an
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At a Glance - Preparing the post-2020 biodiversity framework - 09-01-2020

In October 2020, the parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the main international agreement on biodiversity protection, will meet in Kunming (China) to agree on a post-2020 global biodiversity framework, with conservation and restoration goals for the next decade. A party to the CBD, the European Union (EU) aims 'to lead the world' at this conference (COP15), as it did at the Paris climate conference. A debate is scheduled in view of the COP15 during Parliament's January I plenary session. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - Taking stock of EU human rights and democracy action: Annual report for 2018 - 09-01-2020

The annual report on human rights and democracy in the world is a comprehensive exercise that takes stock of all European Union (EU) actions in the human rights and democracy field. The report provides the European Parliament with an opportunity to recommend
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At a Glance - Taking stock of EU human rights and democracy action: Annual report for 2018 - 09-01-2020

The annual report on human rights and democracy in the world is a comprehensive exercise that takes stock of all European Union (EU) actions in the human rights and democracy field. The report provides the European Parliament with an opportunity to recommend future EU action, considering current challenges, in its yearly resolution adopted in response to the EU report. The report for 2018 underlines that the EU should continue to play a leading role in tackling global democracy and human rights challenges, a view shared by the Parliament. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Briefing - Is data the new oil? Competition issues in the digital economy - 08-01-2020

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that d
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Briefing - Is data the new oil? Competition issues in the digital economy - 08-01-2020

The global debate on the extent to which current competition policy rules are sufficient to deal with the fast-moving digital economy has never been more pertinent. An important part of this debate concerns the market power of large high-tech companies that dominate many online markets. The main factors behind these developments are economies of scale and scope, network externalities, and the rising economic significance of data, which are a highly valuable commodity in an online economy. While being indispensable to the development of potential game changers – such as artificial intelligence – data are also a crucial input to many online services, production processes, and logistics – making it a critical element in the value chain of many different industries. Data-dependent markets are also characterised by a high level of concentration and, according to many experts, high entry barriers relating to access to and ownership of data – which make it difficult to challenge the incumbent companies. On the other hand, the large players are generally considered to be very productive and innovative. Some studies, however, show that the diffusion of know-how and innovation between the market leaders and the rest of the economy may be affecting competiveness in general. One possible way to correct these shortcomings is to regulate the sharing of data. While the risks of policy-making in this field are generally well-known and centre around the need to protect privacy – particularly where personal data are involved – and to prevent the collusive aspects of data sharing, there is currently no global model to follow. The European Union has taken multiple initiatives to unlock data markets through modern, user-centred laws such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the regulation on the reuse of public sector information. The global thinking seems to gradually favour more prudent oversight of the market, considering its economic heft. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

At a Glance - International Year of Indigenous Languages – Sami people and languages in the EU - 08-01-2020

Indigenous languages are the essence of indigenous peoples' culture and traditions. They constitute the majority of the almost 7 000 languages spoken all over the world, yet, tragically, almost half of them are threatened with extinction. The loss of an indig
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At a Glance - International Year of Indigenous Languages – Sami people and languages in the EU - 08-01-2020

Indigenous languages are the essence of indigenous peoples' culture and traditions. They constitute the majority of the almost 7 000 languages spoken all over the world, yet, tragically, almost half of them are threatened with extinction. The loss of an indigenous language results in the loss of culture, tradition and ancestral knowledge, mainly botanical, gathered throughout the ages by those who speak it, resulting also in the loss of biodiversity. In light of this, the UN General Assembly declared 2019 the International Year of Indigenous Languages. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

In-Depth Analysis - Ten issues to watch in 2020 - 06-01-2020

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are
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In-Depth Analysis - Ten issues to watch in 2020 - 06-01-2020

This is the fourth edition of an annual EPRS publication designed to identify and frame some of the key issues and policy areas that are likely to feature prominently on the political agenda of the European Union over the coming year. The topics analysed are biodiversity, EU policies for children, the 5G era, the price for energy transition, 'gamification' of EU democracy, finding solutions for asylum policy, the EU's long-term budget, climate action, the US elections, and the Arctic. Source : © European Union, 2020 - EP

Study - The European Commission package of ETIAS consequential amendments: Substitute impact assessment - 20-12-2019

On 7 January 2019, the European Commission presented two proposals for amendments to the legal instruments of the EU information systems following the adoption of Regulation 2018/1240 on the establishment of a European Travel Information and Authorisation Sys
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Study - The European Commission package of ETIAS consequential amendments: Substitute impact assessment - 20-12-2019

On 7 January 2019, the European Commission presented two proposals for amendments to the legal instruments of the EU information systems following the adoption of Regulation 2018/1240 on the establishment of a European Travel Information and Authorisation System (ETIAS). The ETIAS Regulation requires all visa-exempt non-EU nationals to apply online for travel authorisation prior to the date of their departure. Neither the original Commission proposal for ETIAS, nor the two subsequent proposals (‘the Commission package’) were accompanied by Commission impact assessments. The European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) therefore requested a targeted substitute impact assessment of the expected fundamental rights impacts of specific elements of the Commission package. In particular, this study assesses: 1) whether the amendments to the ECRIS-TCN Regulation provided for in the Commission package extend the scope of that information system and, if so, whether such an extension is necessary and proportionate in accordance with Article 52(1) of the EU Charter; and 2) whether the amendments regarding the automated processing of ETIAS application files through comparisons against data present in EU information systems raise concerns in relation to the rights to respect for private life and protection of personal data. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - 2019: A year of challenges and choices [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 20-12-2019

The European Parliament elections and formation of a new European Commission with new priorities, together with a general economic slowdown against the backdrop of the US-China trade conflict, to say nothing of Brexit, defined 2019 as a year of tough choices
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Briefing - 2019: A year of challenges and choices [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 20-12-2019

The European Parliament elections and formation of a new European Commission with new priorities, together with a general economic slowdown against the backdrop of the US-China trade conflict, to say nothing of Brexit, defined 2019 as a year of tough choices in the context of old and new challenges. Those include efforts to fight climate change, the defence of the rules-based international order, the advance of the digital revolution, the emerging debate over the EU’s strategic sovereignty, and the need to re-define relations with the United Kingdom post-Brexit. This note offers links to recent selected commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on the state of the EU in 2019 and its outlook in several important areas. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Reporting on SDG implementation: UN mechanisms and the EU approach - 20-12-2019

Adopted in 2015 by the United Nations (UN), the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 'the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all' – clearly links the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) it introduced to a series of targ
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Briefing - Reporting on SDG implementation: UN mechanisms and the EU approach - 20-12-2019

Adopted in 2015 by the United Nations (UN), the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 'the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all' – clearly links the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) it introduced to a series of targets to be reached by 2030. The 2030 Agenda includes a detailed mechanism to monitor progress with regard to these targets. At the core of this mechanism are a number of quantified indicators for each target that are regularly revised by the UN and other international agencies. These agencies and the EU provide support to national statistical services across the world in collecting data for the SDG indicators in order to gather reliable and comparable datasets. These data feed the voluntary national reports that countries prepare to exchange good practices and advice on tackling the challenges they encounter in implementing their SDG strategies. High-level forums take stock of both progress and weaknesses in implementation, so as to ensure that everybody is on track in pursuing the SDGs. The EU has long experience in collecting consistent data from its Member States. The European Union Statistical Office (Eurostat) has created a set of sustainable development indicators that provide a good overview of progress within the EU; yet, according to analysts, these indicators do not give a clear picture of the risks of not attaining some goals by 2030. EU development cooperation services have devised a framework of indicators to assess how EU support contributes to other countries' implementation of the SDGs. However, the European Parliament and other stakeholders regret that the spill-over effect of EU policies on third countries remains a blind spot in the evaluation of the EU's contribution to the SDGs. Although technical in nature, SDG indicators and data also have a political dimension, as they clearly measure countries' and other stakeholders' achievements against their own commitments. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, December 2019 - 20-12-2019

The December plenary session highlights included the election of the European Ombudsman; commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights becoming legally binding; and the award of the 2019 Sakharov Prize for Fr
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At a Glance - Plenary round-up – Strasbourg, December 2019 - 20-12-2019

The December plenary session highlights included the election of the European Ombudsman; commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights becoming legally binding; and the award of the 2019 Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought. Parliament adopted positions on the rule of law in Malta, following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia, and on public discrimination and hate speech against LGBTI people, including LGBTI-free zones. It also debated statements by the Vice-President of the European Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) on the humanitarian situation of the Uyghur in China and in Venezuela and Nicaragua, on the migration and refugee crisis, and on the violent crackdown on recent protests in Iran. Debates took place, inter alia, on Commission and Council statements on: the 30th anniversary of the Romanian revolution of December 1989; the post-2020 EU disability strategy; the COP25 outcome; animal welfare conditions during transport to third countries; and the US Trade Representative's announcement on France's digital service tax. Parliament also voted on appointments to the Executive Board of the European Central Bank. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Indonesia: Economic indicators and trade with EU - 19-12-2019

Which economy grew faster over the past 15 years – the EU or Indonesia? How many Indonesian women have a job, and what is the unemployment rate? Which country is Indonesia's biggest trading partner? What kind of products does the EU import from Indonesia? H
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At a Glance - Indonesia: Economic indicators and trade with EU - 19-12-2019

Which economy grew faster over the past 15 years – the EU or Indonesia? How many Indonesian women have a job, and what is the unemployment rate? Which country is Indonesia's biggest trading partner? What kind of products does the EU import from Indonesia? How does Indonesia compare with the global average in terms of human development, income inequality and corruption? You can find the answers to these and other questions in our EPRS publication on Indonesia: economic indicators and trade with EU, one of a series of infographics on the world's main economies produced in collaboration with the European University Institute's GlobalStat. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - The impact of the free movement of economically active citizens within the EU - 18-12-2019

In recent years employment rates increased for nationals and mobile EU-citizens especially when minimum wages and/or collective agreements were in place. The free movement leads to higher employment, higher productivity and income, and has a positive impact o
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Briefing - The impact of the free movement of economically active citizens within the EU - 18-12-2019

In recent years employment rates increased for nationals and mobile EU-citizens especially when minimum wages and/or collective agreements were in place. The free movement leads to higher employment, higher productivity and income, and has a positive impact on taxes and social contributions. However, the vocational qualifications are not fully recognized, therefore the potential cannot be used to the full extent. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Women in parliaments - 18-12-2019

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by
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At a Glance - Women in parliaments - 18-12-2019

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the EP elections in May 2019. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous edition was published in February 2019. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Study - Research for TRAN Committee - Postal services in the EU - 16-12-2019

This study aims at providing the European Parliament’s TRAN Committee with an overview of the EU postal services sector, including recent developments, and recommendations for EU policy-makers on how to further stimulate growth and competitiveness of the se
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Study - Research for TRAN Committee - Postal services in the EU - 16-12-2019

This study aims at providing the European Parliament’s TRAN Committee with an overview of the EU postal services sector, including recent developments, and recommendations for EU policy-makers on how to further stimulate growth and competitiveness of the sector. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS): An EU industrial programme to raise railway competitiveness - 17-12-2019

In recent decades, the European Union has been promoting rail as one of the main pillars of its transport decarbonisation policy. This is likely to be even more the case with the European Green Deal and the ambitious emission reduction targets proposed recent
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Briefing - European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS): An EU industrial programme to raise railway competitiveness - 17-12-2019

In recent decades, the European Union has been promoting rail as one of the main pillars of its transport decarbonisation policy. This is likely to be even more the case with the European Green Deal and the ambitious emission reduction targets proposed recently by the new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen. However, in order to contribute effectively to the decarbonisation of transport, railways must offer a harmonious, efficient, fast and safe service. Whereas over time the EU Member States had each developed their own railway signalling systems, the EU launched an industrial project to develop and deploy a single control, command and signalling system, known as the European rail traffic management system (ERTMS). The aim was to improve rail technical compatibility, efficiency and competitiveness. Since the late 1990s, the EU has been working on a regulatory framework, technical standards and ERTMS deployment plans. Given the scale of investment required, the EU has also allocated funding to the project through the Connecting Europe Facility and the EU structural and investments funds. ERTMS deployment is also supported by the active involvement of EU rail operators, infrastructure managers and the supply industry and the first commercial lines using ERTMS were opened in 2005. Although it offers benefits to both the rail sector and passengers, ERTMS still faces challenges, the greatest being low and patchy development, insufficient funding and coordination between Member States and slow migration from national legacy systems to ERTMS. Recent announcements of ERTMS full-scale deployment plans and commitments in Europe could be read as a sign that ERTMS is increasingly perceived as a top priority. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Outcome of the meetings of EU leaders, 12-13 December 2019 - 17-12-2019

At the first European Council meeting chaired by the new President, Charles Michel, the main issues on the agenda were climate change, the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), and the proposed Conference on the Future of Europe. Regarding climate chang
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Briefing - Outcome of the meetings of EU leaders, 12-13 December 2019 - 17-12-2019

At the first European Council meeting chaired by the new President, Charles Michel, the main issues on the agenda were climate change, the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), and the proposed Conference on the Future of Europe. Regarding climate change, the European Council announced an agreement on the objective of achieving a climate-neutral EU by 2050, despite the refusal of one Member State to commit to implementing this objective at this stage. On the MFF, the European Council did not reach agreement, but mandated its President to take the negotiations forward. The European Council also considered the idea of a Conference on the Future of Europe, and tasked the in-coming Croatian Council presidency to work towards defining a Council position on the matter, and on that basis, to engage with the European Parliament and the Commission. EU leaders also discussed a wide range of international issues, including relations with Turkey and Russia. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

In-Depth Analysis - EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview and figures - 16-12-2019

Collectively, the 33 countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) are the EU's fifth largest trading partner. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

In-Depth Analysis - EU trade with Latin America and the Caribbean: Overview and figures - 16-12-2019

Collectively, the 33 countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) are the EU's fifth largest trading partner. The EU has fully fledged agreements with two Latin American groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group), a multiparty trade agreement with three countries of the Andean Community (Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru), and agreements with Mexico and Chile that are in the process of being modernised. Furthermore, the EU has inter-regional and bilateral framework agreements with both Mercosur and its individual members. The EU's agreements governing trade relations with Latin American and Caribbean subgroupings and individual countries differ considerably in terms of coverage and methodology, depending on the time at which they were concluded and the backdrop to the negotiations. The EU is currently modernising the trade pillars of its agreements with Mexico (an 'agreement in principle' was reached in April 2018) and Chile (negotiations are still ongoing) in order to align them to the current standards of EU FTAs. If the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement, which includes a trade pillar for which a political agreement was reached in June 2019, is successfully ratified, the EU would then have comprehensive agreements governing trade relations with nearly all of Latin America and the Caribbean (with the exception of Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela). Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - December 2019 - 16-12-2019

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - December 2019 - 16-12-2019

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - What if we lived up to 150 years? - 16-12-2019

Would you structure your life differently if the average life expectancy was 150 years? How would society reframe its conception of education and work, and the value placed on older generations? How can we ensure a coinciding increase in healthy life years? T
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - What if we lived up to 150 years? - 16-12-2019

Would you structure your life differently if the average life expectancy was 150 years? How would society reframe its conception of education and work, and the value placed on older generations? How can we ensure a coinciding increase in healthy life years? This latest foresight publication explores impacts and policy considerations in a dramatically aged population. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - Enhancing EU competitiveness [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 13-12-2019

The European Union has been established as an area of security, stability and prosperity, in which economic competitiveness plays a key role. Although in terms of productivity some EU countries are doing well, compared to, for example, the United States, the
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - Enhancing EU competitiveness [What Think Tanks are thinking] - 13-12-2019

The European Union has been established as an area of security, stability and prosperity, in which economic competitiveness plays a key role. Although in terms of productivity some EU countries are doing well, compared to, for example, the United States, the EU is lagging behind some other world regions in reaping the fruits of the digital revolution. Analysts also point to the need to continue euro-area governance reforms, completing the Banking Union and pushing ahead with the creation of the Capital Markets Union. A debate continues about whether the EU should support the creation of EU industrial champions, which advocates claim could be well placed to compete internationally in some sectors. This note brings together commentaries, analyses and studies by international think tanks and research institutes on EU competitiveness and related issues. Earlier papers on reforming the euro area are available in a previous issue from the series, published in December 2019. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Briefing - European Institute of Innovation and Technology and its Strategic Innovation Agenda, 2021-2027 - 12-12-2019

The main objective of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is to stimulate and support innovation and competitiveness in Europe. In this light, it is regrettable that the impacts on SMEs, competitiveness, or territorial impacts are not di
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

Briefing - European Institute of Innovation and Technology and its Strategic Innovation Agenda, 2021-2027 - 12-12-2019

The main objective of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is to stimulate and support innovation and competitiveness in Europe. In this light, it is regrettable that the impacts on SMEs, competitiveness, or territorial impacts are not discussed in the impact assessment. The budget of the EIT under Horizon 2021-2027 proposal is EUR 3 billion. As most innovation activities managed by EIT take place in 5 countries only, improved regional outreach is one of the objectives of this initiative. New activity - HEInnovate - is proposed to support entrepreneurial and innovation capacity of universities. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Study in Focus «International Climate Negotiations - Issues at stake in view of the COP25 UN Climate Change Conference in Madrid» - 15-11-2019

At the 25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, delegates will negotiate the further implementation of the Paris Agreement. This study in focus provides an overview of the international framework to address
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Study in Focus «International Climate Negotiations - Issues at stake in view of the COP25 UN Climate Change Conference in Madrid» - 15-11-2019

At the 25th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, delegates will negotiate the further implementation of the Paris Agreement. This study in focus provides an overview of the international framework to address climate change, the stakeholders involved, the status of the negotiations and recent developments that may affect the negotiations. This document was provided by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Current membership of the European Council - 10-12-2019

The European Council consists of the 28 Heads of State or Government of the EU Member States, who are voting members, together with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, who have no vote (Article 15(2) TEU). The c
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Current membership of the European Council - 10-12-2019

The European Council consists of the 28 Heads of State or Government of the EU Member States, who are voting members, together with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, who have no vote (Article 15(2) TEU). The chart shows the current members, the national office they hold and their political affiliation, as well as the year their membership of the institution began. This publication is updated periodically to reflect changes in the European Council's membership. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

At a Glance - Stability of EU farmer income support post 2020 - 10-12-2019

EU farmer income support benefits millions of farmers across Europe every year. The existing legal basis for this support covers the years 2014 to 2020. Delays in the negotiating process on both the EU budget and farm policy for 2021 2027 necessitate adoptio
Documents - Think Tank - European Parliament

At a Glance - Stability of EU farmer income support post 2020 - 10-12-2019

EU farmer income support benefits millions of farmers across Europe every year. The existing legal basis for this support covers the years 2014 to 2020. Delays in the negotiating process on both the EU budget and farm policy for 2021 2027 necessitate adoption of transitional provisions to ensure the continuation of the current rules. The Parliament is due to vote on a Commission proposal on these issues during its December plenary session. Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP